Aarti also spelled arti, arati, arathi, aarthi (In Devanagari: आरती ārtī) is a Hindu religious ritual of worship. It is a part of puja, in which light from wicks soaked in ghee (purified butter) or camphor is offered to one or more deities. Aartis also refer to the songs sung in praise of the murty, when lamps are being offered.
Stotra or Stotram (stotra) is a Sanskrit word, that means “ode, eulogy or a hymn of praise”. It is a literary genre of Indian texts designed to be melodically sung, in contrast to shastras which are composed to be recited.
A stotra can be a prayer, a description, or a conversation, but always with a poetic structure. It may be a simple poem expressing praise and personal devotion to a deity, or poems with embedded spiritual and philosophical doctrines.
Many stotra hymns praise aspects of the divine, such as Devi, Siva, or Vishnu. Relating to word “stuti“, coming from the same verb, stu (to praise), and basically both mean “praise”. Notable stotra are Shiva Tandava Stotram in praise of Shiva and Ram Raksha Stotra a prayer for protection to Lord Rama. Stotras are a type of popular devotional literature.
Chalisa means “forty verse” prayers . Verses that praise and plead with devotion. They are recited over and over again or chanted by groups. The acts and deeds of deities are recalled in these verses to aid the devotee to meditate on righteous and noble qualities. In Chalisa verses are praise and plead with devotion.
Katha/Kathya is an Indian style of religious storytelling, performances of which are a ritual event in Hinduism, and often involve professional storytellers called kathavahchak or vyas, who recite the Hindu religious texts, such as the Puranas, Ramayana or Bhagavata Purana, often followed by a commentary, Pravachan. Sometimes such events take place in households when it involves smaller stories related to the Vrat Katha genre, for example, the Shri Satyanarayan Katha. Katha are didactic in nature and used to instill moralistic values through the revelation of the consequences of human action (Karma).